Tuesday, August 23, 2022

Teaching Approaches


Author:   Mr. Girgis


Position:Senior Supervisor of English /


Trainer / Lecturer / 


Education Researcher /






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   There are a lot of other teaching methods. 

 Some of them are old and others are modern. 

Here, we are going to talk a

bout some of the old methods, 

showing their goals, merits and demerits.

• Grammar Translation Approach

• Direct Method Approach

• Reading Approach

• Audio-lingual Approach

• Oral or Situational Approach

• Cognitive Approach

Effective Humanistic Approach

• Comprehension Approach

• Communicative Approach

 Do Strict School Schedules Limit Learning? - Learning Liftoff


1- GTM:

      The grammar–translation method is a method of teaching

 a foreign language derived from the classical (sometimes called 

traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In grammar–

translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then 

 apply those rules by translating sentences between the target

 language and the native language. Advanced students

may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word.


 It originated from the practice of teaching Latin; 

in the early 1500s, students learned Latin for 

communication, but after the language died out it was 

studied purely as an academic discipline. 

When teachers started teaching other foreign languages

 in the 19th century, they used the same translation-based 

approach as had been used for teaching Latin. The method

has been rejected by scholars,and has no theoretical basis.

Teacher  simply interprets the material and explains the 

grammatical structure.  This type of teaching is called the

 Grammar Translation Method (GTM). In this method, 

fortunately for teachers, the teaching process is very

simple and easy. It requires students to translate the 

whole text literally, word for word and memorize

 numerous grammatical rules and exceptions as well

as enormous vocabulary lists.

Image result for monuments and tourists in egypt

 Teacher  simply interprets the material and explains the

 grammatical structure.  This type of teaching is called the

 Grammar Translation Method (GTM). In this method, 

fortunately for teachers, the teaching process is very

simple and easy.

It requires students to translate the whole text literally, 

word for word and memorize numerous grammatical 

rules and exceptions as well as enormous

 vocabulary lists.

This method begins with a massive bilingual

 vocabulary list. Grammar points come directly 

from the text and are presented in the deductive 

 way. It is explained elaborately by the instructor.

Grammar thus provides the rules for assembling

 words.  Tedious translation and grammar drills 

are used to exercise and strengthen the knowledge

 without attention to the content.

 Sentences are deconstructed and translated.

 Eventually, entire texts are translated from

 the target language into the native language

 and tests often ask students to replicate 

classical texts in the target language.

There is no focus on the skills of listening,

 speaking or communication. The skill which

 is exercised is reading and 

only in the content of the translation.


The goal:

The method has two main goals: to enable 

students to read and translate literature written

 in the source language, and to further students'

 general intellectual development. 

The goal is to read and translate literary 

masterpieces and classics.


The demerits:

There is feeling tedious, being extrinsically

 motivated for the most part, and barely interacting 

with teachers. In addition, 

the GTM totally ignores listening and speaking skills.

That’s why the method is no longer used in modern 

language teaching classes. It is a teacher-based 

teaching method. All focus is on the teacher.

The learner is passive as he is not a participant.

For all of the teacher out there who find it hard

 to differentiate instruction, you have no excuse, 

as there are over 13 different teaching approaches

 and styles. This means you have at least 13 ways

 to differentiate instruction at all times. 

In this piece, we will discuss 13 of them.

Analytic Teaching:A method of monitoring and 
evaluating students’ literacy progress that 
recognizes, respects, and appreciates the 
students’ abilities.

Assumptive Teaching:   A type of instruction resulting
 from teachers’ inaccurate assumptions about students’ 
abilities, which leads to discord between the teaching 
program and the learner.

Deductive Teaching:  A didactic style of instruction
 in which a teacher presents a generality or rule 
with the expectation that students will apply it to
 specific scenarios.

Didactic Teaching:   A style of teaching in which
 a teacher transmits content to students with the
 expectation that they will simply learn it.

Discovery Teaching:   A teaching style which 
provides students with an environment that 
encourages them to find general patterns for
 themselves. It is also called inductive teaching.

Non-Directive Teaching:   A teaching model 
that uses facilitated teaching and focuses on
 helping students set personal goals.

Reciprocal Teaching:   An interactive learning 
strategy aimed at teaching students to 
summarize portions of text, predict potential 
questions, and clarify the complex text. 
At first, students observe the teacher as he 
or she models ideal behaviors; then,
 they gradually take on the teacher’s
 instructional role.

Direct Approach:  A method of teaching
 thinking skill in which the skill is presented
 and then examples of its use are given.

Intentional Teaching: Teaching that happens
 when an educator is focused on creating a 
plan to instruct students with a specific learning
 goal or developmental outcome in mind.

Readiness Training:   Instruction that equips 
students with foundational skills and background
 knowledge to prepare them for subsequent
 formal teaching. 

Tiered Instruction: The instructional method 
of creating the best lesson possible on a topic 
and then extrapolating from the base lesson
 to make it more challenging for students who
 are ready for advanced work and less 
challenging for students who are not ready
 for the requirements of the base lesson.

Activity-Based Approach: An approach to
 instruction that makes teachable moments
 out of naturally occurring, everyday activities.

Guided Comprehension Model:   
An instruction process based on explaining, 
demonstrating, guiding, practicing,
 and reflecting that can scaffold comprehension.

2-Direct Method Approach:

The Direct Method Approach took stance
 against GTM.  This method was largely in 
opposition of GTM as it stressed those areas 
of teaching that GTM Approach overlooked. 
It was mainly influenced by the view of the 
scholars that also pioneered the first 
IPA symbols.

 It focused more on spoken skills and teaching 

inductively with no use of L1. However, it had 

its own flaws. 

 EX: trained teacher and other necessary 

equipment li realia, pictures were hard to

 acquire in every situation.Direct Method 

Approach accentuated the spoken variety

 teaching along with the new discoveries

 on the side of phonology.

Direct Method :

1-Knowing a language was being able to 

speak it! Primacy of spoken word. 

New method laid great stress

on correct pronunciation and target

 language from outset.

2-Second language learning must be an 

imitation of first language learning, as this

 is the natural way humans learn any language.

 3- Printed word must be kept away from

 second language learner. 


 Disadvantages of Direct Method:

Major fallacy of Direct Method was belief 
that second language should be learned
 in way in which first language was acquired. 
 First language learning is essential part of 
child's total growth of awareness of world 
around him.Part of the process of learning
 how to live is the acquisition of skills to 
verbalize his desires and aversions and 
 to label his concepts.Effectiveness of 
these verbalizing skills depends on 

maturation level of the child / on type 

of environment on intelligence.

3-Reading Approach:

It is focusing on the development of reading
 skill. The basic principles of this approach 
are presented as follows:

Reading Instruction (MA or Endorsement)


1. The teaching grammar is restricted. It is 

taught to ease the reading comprehension.

2. The presentation of vocabulary is highly

 controlled a the beginning and then 

expanded later.

3. Translation is regarded as a fruitful

 classroom practice.

4. Reading comprehension receives the 

highest attention and it is heavily emphasized.

5. The foreign language is not used as a tool for 

communication in the classroom environment.

4-Audio-Lingual Approach:

    The audio-lingual approach dominated foreign
 language teaching in the 1950s.  Its rise is 
partly due to the fact that because of the 
rapid increase of international trade, travel, 
and commerce, ever more people needed
 to learn English. That includes ‘intellectually
 less gifted’ people. The major aim is to 
enable all learners to use English in 
everyday oral communication. 
Speaking is putbefore and above writing.

5- Situational Approach:

 The situational approach, the basic 

premise of which is that different situations

 demand different types of leadership.

 A situation, is a "set of values  and attitudes 

with which the individual or group has to deal

 in a process of activity.  Every concrete 

activity is the solution of a situation.

" Situations can be complicated affairs.


6- Cognitive Approach:

Cognition refers to mental activity

 including thinking remembering, 

learning and using language. 

When we apply a cognitive 

approach to learning and teaching, 

we focus on the understanding of

 information and concepts. 

Cognitive theory maintains that 

how one thinks largely 

determines how one feels

 and behaves.

 If we are able to understand 
the connections between concepts, 

 break down information and rebuild
 with logical connections, then our 
mention of material and understanding
 will increase. When we are aware 
of these mental actions, monitor
 them and control our learning 
processes it is called 

Learning In and Out of School? - WizIQ Blog

7-Affective Humanistic 


   Humanism would concentrate upon the

 development of the child's self-concept.. 

 If the child feels good about him 

or herself then that is a positive start.

 Feeling good about oneself would involve

 an understanding of ones' strengths 

and weaknesses, and a belief in one's 

ability to improve.

  Learning is not an end in itself. It is the

 means to progress towards the pinnacle 

of self-development, which means

 'Self-actualization'. A child learns because

 he is inwardly driven, and derives his

 reward from the sense of achievement

 that having learned something affords.

This would differ from the behaviorist view

 that would expect extrinsic rewards to be 

more effective. Extrinsic rewards are

 rewards from the outside world,

e.g. praise, money, gold stars, etc. 

Intrinsic rewards are rewards 

from within oneself, rather like a 

satisfaction of a need.

8- Comprehension Based 


 The Comprehension Approach refers to

 several methodologies of language learning

 that emphasize understanding of 

language rather than speaking. 

It is a pedagogical/instructive principle, 

which can be found in a number of

methods and in practical listening 



A. Comprehension should be taught by 

teaching learners to understand meaning

 in the target language.


B. The learners' level of comprehension 

exceed their ability to produce language. 

 C.Language skills emerge when learners 

have well developed comprehension skills.


D. Such an approach reflects how children

 learn their first language.




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Tech Transformation: July 2015

10-English-Only Approach

The English only method is one of the most 

direct approaches to teaching the language. 

For this method, neither the teacher

 nor the student should speak their native

 tongue at all during instruction. All instruction

 should be done in English only.


Vocabulary should be taught first, as it is the 

easiest to grasp because it can be demonstrated 

with a visual aid. As the student builds vocabulary, 

the instructor can begin introducing abstract words 

and elements of the language, but without 

explaining or focusing on the actual grammatical 

structure. The complexities of the language 

will be learned inherently, with the student 

picking up on its patterns through

 practice and application only.

At the end of each class period, there 

can be an optional question and answer

 session where students are allowed  

to ask the teacher about that day’s lesson. 

Here, clarifications may be made and 

confusion may be cleared up, but again, 

this is entirely optional. Sometimes, t

he best way to learn the language

 through this method is to  just tough it

 out and let it come naturally.

Methods of Teaching


Which is this best for?

This method is best for students learning the

 English language because of an academic

 interest in it as a language, and not 

just an interest or need to know how to 

speak it. Speaking, reading, and writing 

the language will be given equal priority,

 and grammar rules and concepts 

will not be avoided for a more “natural” 

approach. It will be taught academically, 

as any other subject, and is best for 

students who are interested in this kind 

of rigorous approach.

11-Immersive Approach

The immersive approach is one of the best 

ways to learn the language for older students

 who are able to travel for their education. 

Someone who wants to learn English 

doesn’t even need to be enrolled in an 

English language course to use this method – 

all they need are the resources

 involved in travel.

For students wanting to learn British English,

 a trip to the United Kingdom is recommended.

 For students wanting to learn American English,

 a trip to the United States is recommended.

 If the student wants an academic-heavy 

approach, there are foreign exchange 

programs they can enroll in through colleges, 

or other academic programs

 that allow prolonged travel.

Again, an academic program is not required

 for this method. Staying in a new country 

and learning the language through pure

 immersion and necessity is one of the best

 ways to learn it quickly. Students will be

 surrounded by media in that language, 

and people who speak that language. 

It is a great way t break off from the 

distractions of your native tongue, 

and learn how to think in the English 

language as well as speak it.

Who is this best for?

Teachers and students who are able to 

travel and stay in another country long 

enough to develop a strong grasp on 

the English language.

Image result for monuments and tourists in egypt

12-Community Language


In this method attempts are made to build strong
 personal links between the teacher and student 
so that there are no blocks to learning. 
There is much talk in the mother tongue 
which is translated by the teacher
 for repetition by the student. 

The 10 most effective teaching methods, according to an expert


13-The Lexical Approach:

Learners learn English through meaning, feeling
 and practice.The teacher uses his real situations
 and authentic material and visual aids to present 
 the new vocabulary or the grammatical 
rule form. The teacher uses interesting

styles to make learners feel the language 
and become interested in it.

The teacher creates changeable collocations
 to be used in a question and an answer with 
constant chunks.  Students work in pairs as a
 model first, then as free practice.The teacher does 
a model practice. Learners do free practice in 
pairs.  Learners do a communication practice.
 This is used in dealing with the new vocabulary,
 expressions, idioms, phrasal verbs or with 
grammatical structures.   

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Mr. / Girgis         

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